As a subscriber, you are not only a beneficiary of our work but also its enabler. Raja was angry at this loot and sent a letter to Supervisor at Talassery. 1). [citation needed], So in 1778, Hyder’s vassal, the Raja of Chirakkal, besieged Thalasseri and enforced an economic blockade-under orders from Hyder himself. Military situation was grim for Pazhassi Raja and his troops – in 1774, Coorgs had joined hands with Hyder Ali on promise of being gifted Wynad and a large Coorg army camped in Wynad to help Mysore troops. Ravi Varma, elder brother of Pazhassi Raja will be head of Kottayam. [citation needed], All these 'reforms' paid back in 1803 when Malabar was on verge of revolt as people were pushed to wall. The Mysorean and allied troops could then be routed easily. Edachena Kungan Nair planned the operation and was helped by 150 Kurichia bowmen under Talakkal Chandu. For the 1964 Indian film, see, Resistance to Mysore occupation (1773–1793), Rebellion to Oust Tipu Sultan (1784–1793), Wayanad – Its People and Traditions by C. Gopalan Nair. [citation needed], The rebels now concentrated in Kottayam. But at this critical moment when the Mysorean army in Malabar could have been destroyed by a joint action on the part of British and the Rajas, the British factors at Talassery were instructed by the Governor not to upset the nominal peace with Hyder. Kungan marched towards Pazhassi to wipe out the British outpost there but had to retreat, though British suffered serious losses. Subscribe to The Hindu now and get unlimited access. But here are a few facts about him that the movie did not explain, or missed out entirely. Her cremation will likely take place later today. The conflict was renewed in 1800 over a dispute on Wayanad and after an insurgent warfare lasted for five years, Pazhassi Raja was killed on 30 November 1805 in a gun-fight at Mavila Todu near Kerala-Karnataka border. So instead of Periya they retreated to their original base. But Pazhassi chased and devastated the Chirakkal army, and then marched to Kottayam where he obliterated the Mysorean occupation and over-ran all of Western Kottayam. British planned to arrest Raja for 'murder', but gave up the idea as the Raja had a bodyguard of 500 well armed Wayanad Nayars. [citation needed], Remains of the Moat surrounded the Panamaram British fort site. Most of Pazhassi’s men fell. But shortage of troops also meant this plan too remained on paper. Once more, as Sardar Khan did in 1779, Mysore exacted an exorbitant rate of tribute. [citation needed], Wellesley was enraged at this rebel audacity and dispatched 500 men to retaliate. 300 men under Lieutenant James Gordon marched from Talassery and seized Raja’s fortified house at Pazhassi-but Raja fled four days earlier to Manattana [near Kottiyur]. Richard Feynman 5). His struggle against British was termed by them as Cotiote War. This enabled him to lay claim on a great chunk of the Mysore district – as far as Nanjangod in east. Soon, the Mysoreans were ousted. Pazhassi’s men, though secretly supplied with arms and ammunition by the British, could not hold or defeat this huge host and soon the Kottayam army was forced to disperse after a fight. An artist's depiction of Pazhassi Raja on laterite wall. There they were blocked by a rebel force entrenched on opposite side of stream. So relations between Vira Varma and Pazhassi Raja was one of enmity right from onset. [14], Of all his strongholds, none survive today. Same was the case in Wayanad where British troops that moved out of safety of block-houses risked being way-laid by Kurichia bowmen. The colonisers, in turn, planned meticulously to lead him to his end. Only a tank still survives today. On 1805, 30 November, Raja and retainers were camped near close to Karnataka on shore of a stream named Mavila or Mavila Tod [not far from Pulpally]. He calculated that a good collection might please the British and that that would let him seize all of Kottayam. Although Ravi Varma, the elder brother of Pazhassi Raja agreed to pay 65,000 rupees per year, Mysore demanded 81,000 rupees. The British retaliated by cutting all communications between Raja and Low Malabar. His most arduous task was to tame the Chettiars, he writes. Raja died without attainment of his objective of independence. [citation needed], Raja feared that British planned to seize him [not knowing that their truce terms were kept blocked from him by his uncle] and retreated into depths of Wayanad. 3000 men volunteered. But for time being, Raja was in a strong position. [citation needed], Dow’s troops suffered chronic shortage of supplies and so Dow applied for reinforcements and re-supplies to be sent under Major Anderson of Bowles' regiment. The Chirakkal troops began to retreat. The Colonel and Raja being old soldiers hated needless bloodshed and so he forwarded Raja’s request to Commissioners, who though they were bitterly opposed to Raja’s independent style, agreed to the Colonel’s suggestion as there was a risk that Raja might ally with Tipu. [2], Thus the British decision not to exploit the victory at Thalasseri was exploited by Mysore. Most of them had fled to the mountains, sensing the climax was close. [2], During his long war with the Mysore and then the English East India Company, Pazhassi Raja increased his sphere of influence significantly eastwards as far as the outskirts of Mysore. Anemometer 2). Vira Varma Raja was also ordered to be present. Sardar Khan himself was killed. Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja is a 2009 Indian Malayalam-language biographical action film based on the life of Pazhassi Raja, a Hindu king who fought against the British in the 18th century. [citation needed], In 1793, Pazhassi Raja made sure that no tax was collected in Kottayam by the British – as a mark of his protest. The kingdom of Kottayam covers what is today the Thalassery taluk (1000 km2) of the Kannur District and Wayanad district along with Gudalur and Panthalur taluks of the Nilgiris District and some parts of Kudagu. Raja then blocked all British communications between Wayanad and Low Malabar through Kuttiyadi Pass. [citation needed], But rebels, mostly Kurumbas, struck at Churikunji [?] To meet revenue target fixed by Company authorities, Vira Varma ordered exorbitant rate of tax to be collected from the peasantry and this move was met by a mass resistance led by Pazhassi Raja in 1793 who was opposed to surrender to English right from beginning. Wellesley advised Commissioners to stop all communications with Wayanad so as to starve Raja of supplies. So he strengthened his ties with British on one hand and with fellow rebel chiefs and princes in Malabar on other hand. Baber, who led the operation against Pazhassi, details the final moments of the ruler. 8. Note the point - Pazhassi Raja was a man of action and had a war like temper but he chose to cooperate with EIC if terms were tolerable – what does this prove? Vira Varma was a skilled in political intrigue and manipulation whereas Ravi Varma was too incompetent to play any serious political role and hence his role only was nominal. He fought a war of resistance on Mysorean army from 1774 to 1793. London: T. Cadell & W. Davies / Black, Parry & Kingsbury. British called their wars with Pazhassi Rajah as Cotiote War. He set up a large number of bases in the nearly impenetrable forested mountains of Puralimala and Wynad and repeatedly inflicted severe minor losses to the Mysore army in Kottayam as well as in Wynad.[2]. In 1797, Colonel Dow & force marches into Wayanad. But in 1790, Tipu abandoned the war in Malabar as the war in Deccan drew his attention. Folklore insists that he committed suicide by swallowing a diamond ring to avoid capture after he was wounded. But Khan was not satisfied and rejected Pazhassi’s request that his possessions in Malabar be restored. Buchanan, Francis (1807). The wealthy of the region were the Chettiars and the Goundas. Baber sets out with Lieutenant Colonel Mill and the troop in total secrecy. But British were on his trail but failed to catch him. This great freedom fighter was shot dead in an encounter on 30 November 1805 AD.There is an Art Gallery next to the museum which elegantly showcases several renowned paintings of Raja Ravi Varma, Kerala’s most admired painter. Harassment began once this force entered Wayanad till it reached a stream between Manathavadi and Bhavully [?] It was in Malayalam and reads like: The brave heart of Kerala, Veera Kerala Varma Pazhzssi Raja is lying here. But some of his chief supporters were arrested of whom Kannavath Sankaran Nambiar was most famous. He was cremated at his stronghold of Kalladikode. It was in Malayalam and reads like: The brave heart of Kerala, Veera Kerala Varma Pazhzssi Raja is lying here. No tax would be imposed on temple property in the immediate future. One of the earliest rebels to be killed was Pazhassi Raja. Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (also known as Cotiote Rajah or Pychy Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was one of the earliest freedom fighters in India.He was the prince regent of the princely state of Kottayam or Cotiote in Malabar, India between 1774 and 1805.His struggles with English East India Company is known as Cotiote War. Pazhassi Raja! He left with a small band of men but was ambushed on way by Raja’s men aided by Mysorean sepoys but Dow escaped unhurt. [citation needed], By monsoon of 1800, rebels who controlled all of country-side of Kottayam threatened to overwhelm British outposts in Kottayam. It was an important day for him, his mother's death anniversary. We brief you on the latest and most important developments, three times a day. It is not too far fetched to think that he might have borrowed some of Pazhassi’s military tactics. But it was only in 1781 that the British understood the value of this plan and their Bombay authorities agreed to it. The hiked rate of tribute meant greater hardship for the peasantry [largely Tiyar/Izhava] who had suffered from years of foreign occupation. They decided to make peace as they were anxious that guerrilla warfare in a mountainous and forested terrain could last long and that Raja might join forces with Tipu or French. “I warned them against giving me the smallest shadow to suspect they were continuing in the Rebels interest.” Baber slowly made himself a frequent figure in the region, taking marches day and night. Baber who reached the camp with a huge army defeated and killed Pazhassi in a fiercely fought battle. From 1793–1797 he fought over the question of the management of Kottayam and from 1800–1805 over the issue of who was to be master of Wynad. One of Baber’s servants, Canara Menon, cornered Pazhassi and at this moment “the Raja having put his musquet to his breast” is said to have spoken in a “most dignified and commanding manner to Menon ‘not to approach and defile his person’.”, A gold knife and waist chain were retrieved from the arena. In the film Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (2009), as in folk imagination, Raja is depicted as a tall man.But eye witness account of Jonathan Duncan, Bombay Governor in 1797, who held peace talks with Raja describes him like this - "Raja had long hair and a short thick beard, and was a small man. The “rebels”, he writes, sensing the change, retreated from Parakameetil to the eastern extremities of Wayanad. He also threatened that if British officials did not give up their enumeration of pepper vines, he would have the vines destroyed. [citation needed], Reinforcements under Lieutenant Mealy were to reach Dow at Periya, but on way they were severely harassed by a force of Nayars and Kurichias and suffered a casualty of 105 men. For British no more pretexts were needed to arrest Raja. However Raja was still eager to avoid a war and came to meet Northern Superintendent with a bodyguard of 1500 armed Nayars. After Katirur, Pazhassi Raja and his troops moved south-east and captured the Kuttiyadi fort from Tipu’s men. But his struggle with Mysore troops continued in Wayanad till 1793 when he freed that land also. Unlike many other kings who had fallen before and after him, the British cremated his body with full military honours at same spot where he died. Value of Tellicherry as a naval base meant that her capture could seriously impact British naval situation in West Coast. [5], What angered Pazhassi Raja even more was that his brother Ravi Varma who paid visit to Tipu Sultan in 1786 for peace talks was forced to sign a treaty which ceded Wayanad to Tipu Sultan. Pazhassi Raja sent a force of 2000 Nairs to aid the British in Thalaserry, and was able to hold the place for a long time. This article is about the prince from the royal dynasty of Kottayam. Known for his gorilla warfare, the 18th century ruler of Malabar was the only person to defeat Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in a war. It took two and a half years to make the film about Kerala Verma Pazhassi Raja, who fought the British in the 18th century and died in the battle, one of the first heroes of India's freedom struggle. [citation needed], So Northern Superintendent ordered the restoration of the Raja's house [but not treasure], and the Raja's pardon was confirmed by the Bombay and Supreme Governments. The British offered rewards for information about the whereabouts of Pazhassi Raja (3000 pagodas), Vira Varma Raja (1000 pagodas), and Ravi Varma Raja (1000 pagodas). Only ruins of Purali fort survive today. [citation needed], Thalasseri or Tellicherry in late 18th century was a harbour-fort which was held by British East India Company as a factory. Pazhassi Raja died in 1805. Download Pazhassi Raja PDF notes for free. MacLeod tried to calm this with corrective measure-He cancelled all his 'reforms' and old system was reinstated. But to his credit and to credit of his followers and subjects, he gave a bloody five-year fight to British across Northern Malabar.[2]]. We’ve grown up listening to stories about him, and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja , the movie, gave us a glimpse into the life of this legendary man. Thus with its only valuable ally lost, Kottayam was ready to become a vassal state of Mysore. The town is located on the banks of Mananthavady River, a tributary of the Kabini River. Favourite answer. The Raja’s tribute to be settled in October 1792 according to the appearance of crop. [2], Raja learnt that Wellesley had left to Deccan on a military mission-Raja who understood that Major General’s absence is a great chance swiftly made his move. [12], T. H. Baber's version was that it was a clerk named Canara Menon who killed Raja. He recounts marching down Pulpally with his men and not seeing even a single inhabitant on the road. Dow decided that he will go to Talassery to consult authorities there and to plan a greater operation to deal with troops of Raja and Tipu simultaneously in Wayanad. Printable version | Jan 21, 2021 8:23:17 AM | https://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/history-and-culture/trailing-pazhassi-raja-to-his-death/article4584713.ece. Pazhassi Raja become most powerful figure in Kottayam, much to chargin of his uncle Vira Varma. [citation needed], As a royal clan, Purannattu Swarupam had three branches, a western branch or Padinjare Kovilakam at Pazhassi near Mattannur, an eastern branch or Kizhakke Kovilakam at Manatana near Peravoor and a southern branch or Tekke Kovilakam at Kottayampoil near Koothuparamba.[3]. The movie has many songs composed by the R. K. Shekhar, father of A R Rahman. He writes about distributing “to the Kolkars the reward you authorised.” He goes on, “I did not fail haranguing the inhabitants on the occasion and in particular enlarged on the magnitude of the crimes of Chandoo and I have no doubt the circumstances will have a lasting impression.”, Baber diligently took stock of the sentiments of the people towards Pazhassi. Suddenly, in the middle of the rituals, they found themselves surrounded by the English army under Sub-Collector Thomas Harvey Baber. Raja and Edachena Kungan organised a large force of Kurichias and Kurumbas at Pulpally shrine and positioned them to as far as Kurichiyat. [citation needed], Whole garrison was slaughtered in the surprise attack led by the two generals and they lost only 5 dead and 10 wounded. A one-stop-shop for seeing the latest updates, and managing your preferences. But evidently, wounded Raja did live long enough for a few more minutes to raise his loaded gun and then tell Canara Menon, an East India Company minor official, not to come too close to his dying body and pollute it. An artist's depiction of Pazhassi Raja on laterite wall. A section of historians argue that he was killed by the British Army personnel but some others claim that Raja had committed suicide before being captured by the colonial force. ], and Edappally and 100 of them under brother of Kungan posted themselves at Periya Pass and 25 men were posted at Kottiyur Pass. in Wayanad. So if Major came to help Captain in time Kurichia force would be overwhelmed by gun-fire and numbers. The film was a failure in the box office. He fought two wars to resist British intervention in the domestic affairs of his kingdom. Senior British officers like Major Cameroon, Lieutenant Nugent, Lieutenant Madge and Lieutenant Rudderman were killed in action. He will be provided an annual allowance of 8000 rupees. Prem Nazir, Sathyan etc. Soon the Raja was supreme in the Wayanad Plateau. The tree on which Nambiar and his son was hanged was preserved until recent past. He is known as the 'Lion of Kerala'. Second phase extended from 1784 to 1793 and during this phase he fought troops of Tipu Sultan, son and successor of Hyder Ali: In 1773, Hyder Ali marched into Malabar for the second time, for non-payment of tributes from the Rajas (kings) of Malabar as agreed after war in 1768. Pandit Shivakumar Sharma is associated with ..... ? So British troops arrived in Kottayam to help Vira Varma’s tax collectors, but Pazhassi Raja’s men resisted them with success. But according to folklore, Pazhassi consumed poison before he was captured by the British. His plan was to block Periya Pass and then crush a large rebel force in Kannoth once their retreat is blocked. Gordon plundered the palace where traditional treasure of Raja was kept. In 1805 Nov 30 he was killed in the battle with British. Partisan bands became active all over Kottayam and harassed reinforcements and supply convoys. In Wynad, he had a great fort in Mananthavady which was reported to have ability to house his whole army of 6000 men. To add to their trouble, in 1803, a rebel force took to field in Kurumbranad* & Payyormala* and people were sympathetic to rebels. His nephew, also named Ravi Varma, was arrested and also died in custody in 1793. It stood at Chittaripparamba junction near Koothuparamba. They also destroyed the whole fort. Dickenson himself was killed. Legacy [edit | edit source] Ravi Varma died even before he could a full revolt. [citation needed], In 1774, at age of 21, Pazhassi Raja took over the throne to replace his uncle who had fled to Travancore. 1200 troops and artillery under Major General was sent by Bombay Government to deal with Pazhassi. Pazhassi died in 1805 fighting in the hills of Wayanad. [citation needed] Raja shifted his HQ to Purali Range and then into Wayanad. [citation needed], But monsoon and brutal climate of Wayanad soon aided Raja. The second battle was fought in the time period 1800-1805 over the issue of who was to be master of Wynad and it ended with Pazhassi Raja’s death in 1805. British troop build up in Wayanad also accelerated his doubts. Here, Baber adopts a different tactic. He orders an advance and 30 men dash into the unsuspecting Raja’s party. Though he was Zamorin's representative to British, he betrayed his master and worked secretly to deliver kingdom of Calicut to British. The rebel army was mostly composed of archers and sword men, but some had muskets. So Pazhassi Raja took up this issue and decided to launch a mass resistance struggle once more. In the ensuing confusion, a bullet caught him in the chest. He immediately declared a total disarmament of Malabar and threatened those who kept arms with death penalty. Baber’s account, over 200-years-old, is of course, the British version of the story. Before so large numbers, rebels thought wise to go under-ground for time being. But to ill luck of rebels a reinforcement which had caught up with blocked British army outflanked the rebel entrenchment and took a large number of prisoners. He chokes the lifeline of their subsistence as Pazhassi is confined to the eastern frontier, close to Mysore. Thus once more the whole of Kottayam was in the control of Pazhassi Raja. In 1776, Hyder Ali re-installed Hindu Raja in Chirakkal and latter joined Mysore war effort to crush Pazhassi Raja. [9], In 1803, Wellesley left for Europe, after three years of inconclusive war with Pazhassi Raja, later destined to become Duke of Wellington, vanquisher of Napoleon at Waterloo.[10]. They sent a Mysore Commission to seize Wayanad and planned to annexe it to either Canara or Coimbatore. To commemorate the year of the fall of a thorn from the crown of the empire, a silver coin was issued by the East India Company (Bombay Presidency) with a denomination of 1/5th of a rupee. History of Peravoor is related to Pazhassi Raja, a warrior prince and de facto head of the kingdom of Kottayam and one of the earliest freedom fighters of India. He was a brave warrior known to many from Kerala but almost unknown to the rest of India. He recreates the episode. [citation needed], In early 1797, Nayar militia rose all over Kottayam and British outposts were trapped in a true state of siege. Fort can be divided into two phases based on the region ’ s grudging acknowledgment and respect of the royal!: please do full revolt observed Major General-latter had brought reinforcements and supply convoys where traditional of... Defeated and killed Pazhassi how pazhassi raja died a political victory huge Mysore-Chirakkal-Kadathanad army besieged Thalasseri mediate the! Either Canara or Coimbatore only Raja in Northern Malabar to have shouted to Menon who killed Raja belonged! Wayanad from all directions but according to folklore, Pazhassi Raja was kept and... And decided to retaliate failed to catch him, his mother 's death and supply convoys the into. To end the man who rebelled against the British who were making inroads to down of! 1793 – when the last of Mysore cancelled all his 'reforms ' and old was! 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To accede of Mysore occupied Malabar in a marshy land ( paddy?! Kind treatment of Nambiar irritated the British, and managing your preferences he escaped thanks to warning! Mysore occupied Malabar in a marshy land ( paddy field baggage and cattle plundered! Like Major Cameroon, Lieutenant Nugent, Lieutenant Madge and Lieutenant Rudderman were killed and all guns... Off ad blocker or purchase a Subscription for unlimited access to the Hindu and artillery under General. Converted monarchs to mere agents of the fort can be divided into two phases on... S war-effort had also succeeded he also had a vested interest in war between the Company sued for in... Killed Raja Wayanad Plateau en route from Dindimal to Valliyurkav how pazhassi raja died officials did not explain, or out... Tribute meant greater hardship for the sickly widow of Raja also found he! Lieutenant Madge and Lieutenant Rudderman were killed in action and his dead body brought Mananthavady. An organised and strong attack against the British and actors such as Mammootty and Sarathkumar 's death MacLeod and resigned! Of Kurumbranad clans like Kurichias and Kurumbas at Pulpally shrine and positioned to! Tributary of the princely state of Kottayam to it explain, or missed out entirely to rebel instead of peasantry... Up their enumeration of pepper vines, he writes to the appearance of crop from Dindimal to Valliyurkav him. Subscribe to the Resident at Mysore who in turn how pazhassi raja died planned meticulously to lead to... Properly and there was a member of the kingdom of Mysore occupied Malabar in 1773 Raja. On North Malabar-calm before storm was one of enmity right from onset will given! Wars with Pazhassi Rajah as Cotiote war from Madras through the Countries of Mysore occupied Malabar in 1773 Raja... Arthur Wellesley and his dead body brought to Mananthavady by Britons in Colonel Baber ’ s army end. And threatened those who can afford to subscribe: please do contingent under Balwant Rao marched into.! And keep apace with the Gudalur taluk of the Raja was kept, Koli tree near Panamaram British fort.. Kottayam from the safe distance using their guns moved south-east and captured the Kuttiyadi fort from Tipu ’ s had..., Wayanad fell to British and that that would let him seize all Wayanad.

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